How is one to wade through the apparent welter of irreconcilable primary Islamic sources? What is one to do when faced with opposing practices of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) on the same issue? When is a practice deemed necessary or recommended? These are some of the topics discussed in usul al-fiqh.
Allah (swt) says in the Qurʾān ﴾Say: We believe in Allah and what has been sent down to us﴿ (2:136). Therefore it is understood by the scholars of Islam that the ‘first obligation’ for a responsible adult is to know Allah.
Allah describes the Qurʾān as the ‘guidance to mankind, and the Criterion (of right and wrong)’ (2:185). Islamic scholars have therefore sought to explain the sciences associated with correctly understanding the revelation.
Allah (swt) has declared in the Qur’ān: ﴾O you who believe, obey Allah and obey the Messenger…﴿ (4:59). Accordingly, Islamic religious life is based on the instructions of the Qur’ān and the authentic Sunna.
The challenge of how to determine twilight prayer and fasting times at high latitudes is an issue that has vexed successive generations of Muslims since the community first began to dwell in northern lands.
There are variations for the performance of wudu in the different Islamic schools of law throughout the Islamic world, such as the Maliki, Hanifi, Hanbali, and Shafi’i. Again, these are outer differences but the inward sunna is The Book on the Mysteries of Purity For Children what we are mostly aiming to learn in this wonderful book from Imam al-Ghazali.